We may compare the presently developed NV-based thermometric method with the state-of-the-art temperature measurement using quantum dots QDs and gold nanoparticles [ 28 , 29 ]. As luminescent nanothermometers, the highest spatial resolutions of FNDs and QDs are comparable, both limited by the diffraction of light. Although the detection of ODMR signals is very technically challenging, the ultimate sensitivity of the NV-based nanothermometry is about 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive, as recently reported by Kucsko et al. The availability of GNR-FNDs with both heating and sensing functionalities enables active nanoscale thermometric measurement in cells and tissues by optical means.
More importantly, it opens an opportunity to address questions concerning the optimization of the intensity and duration of heat shock in hyperthermia therapy [ 30 ]. To prove the concept, we introduced the dual-functional nanoparticles into HeLa cells through endocytosis, following standard protocols [ 18 , 19 ]. Illumination of the hybrid nanoparticles with the nm laser resulted in highly localized heating.
This temperature rise is more than sufficient for photothermal therapy applications and fine tuning of the temperature setting can be easily realized by adjusting the NIR laser power when needed. Yellow-coloured spots correspond to the colocalization of FNDs red with lysosomes green.
For simplicity, the model takes only the laser-induced heat source and the conduction dissipation into consideration, assuming that there is no significant fluid dynamic flow. The steady state PDE solved for the individual medium water, gold, or diamond in the system is. Numerical simulations of heat conduction. Only a quarter of the temperature profile is shown. This assumption is justified by the fact that diamond has an exceptionally large thermal conductivity and no matter where the GNRs are attached to the FND surface, they all experience the same diamond temperature.
With the nanohybrids irradiated under the same conditions as before i. The determination of this upper bound on the GNR temperature serves as an important reference for the use of these hybrid nanoparticles in forefront applications. The present temperature measurement with single GNR-FNDs is fully compatible with the presence of a static magnetic field. Although the Zeeman splitting has an undesirable effect of reducing the ODMR contrast by about a factor of 4, the linewidth of each component is decreased by half compared with that of the major peak in the field-free region. These two effects combined give rise to similar sensitivity on the temperature measurements with or without the magnetic field.
Six resolved peaks appeared in the ODMR spectrum and each of them showed a significant thermal shift when the nanohybrid was exposed to the NIR light. Choosing one of the peaks with the largest contrast i. ODMR spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and magnetic field sensing.
This characteristic allows us to employ the ODMR peak positions to deduce the angles between the magnetic field and the NV axes as well as to determine the magnetic field strength at the nanoscale with high precision.
According to Doherty et al. In future experiments, we will apply the technique to living organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans , for which recent studies have shown that the FND particles can migrate between cells [ 38 ] and rotate quite freely [ 39 ] in the intestine of the worms. We have developed FND and GNR into a two-in-one optical heating and sensing nanoplatform with simple surface chemistry. Our results suggest that the GNR-FND nanohybrids are useful for simultaneous temperature and magnetic sensing in biological platforms where the nanohybrids may find practical applications.
Further improvement of the performance of the nanoscale sensors is possible by covalent conjugation of the surface-modified GNRs with FNDs through amide or other linkages, such as the azide-alkyne coupling by click chemistry [ 40 ]. These dual-functional GNR-FND nanoparticles are convenient and appealing for applications in nanoscale hyperthermia where highly localized and controlled heating for safer and more effective therapy of cancer is desired. On occasions where no knowledge of temperature is needed, the FNDs in the nanohybrids are still useful as a photostable beacon to guide researchers to achieve target-specific optical transfection [ 41 ] or light-activated therapies [ 42 ] with the constituting GNR nanoheaters.
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J Nanopart Res. View Section, Front Matter. View Section, Preface. View Section, Table of Contents. View Section, Part I. Advances in Synthesis and Processing. View Section, 1. Stability of Diamond at the Nanoscale. View Section, 2.
- Diamond Nanotechnology.
- Nanotechnology Reviews.
- The Philosophy of Neo-Noir (Philosophy Of Popular Culture).
- Do I Kneel or Do I Bow? (Simple Guides)?
- Diamond Nanotechnology: Synthesis and Applications.
View Section, 3. View Section, 4.
View Section, 5. Advances in Synthesis of Nanodiamond Particles. View Section, 6.
Deagglomeration of Detonation Nanodiamond. View Section, 7. Diamond Phase Transitions at Nanoscale. View Section, Part II. Advances in Nanodiamond Characterization and Property Measurements.
View Section, 8. View Section, 9. Recent Results on Characterization of Detonation Nanodiamonds. View Section, Emerging Applications. Nanocarbons in Energy Conversion.
clublavoute.ca/sadab-mujer-soltera.php Nanodiamond Nanoparticles as Additives to Lubricants.